Cordyceps sinensis is an abundant resource in nature with various biological activities. Many studies have shown that Cordyceps sinensis modulates immune responses, decreases plasma cholesterol levels, enhances hepatic function, regulates insulin sensitivity, and improves hypotensive and vasorelaxant activity. Han et al. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, polypeptide, and others. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory.
So we can use different effects of C. Wang et al. It may have helped the tissues recover from MCA injury.
This finding suggested that the concomitant use of Se and CS could be a potential therapeutic approach to improve the efficacy of therapy for uterine cervical cancer. The previous study demonstrated that this mushroom exhibited cytoprotection activity against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Xie et al.
The hepatic histopathological observations showed that HEM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage. Yu-ling et al. Cancer and the New Biology of Water. In Stock. Original Reiki Handbook Of Dr. Essential Oils Ancient Medicine. Awareness Through Movement.
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View Wishlist. Some suggestions were also made that increase in c-Jun N-terminal Kinase JNK , P38 kinase activity and protein expression levels of Bcl-2 pro apoptotic molecules played a role in cell apoptosis. The conclusion was drawn that inhibition of cell proliferation and further apoptosis of SW and SW cells were induced by cordycepin [ 7 ]. Similar action of cordycepin was also demonstrated in gallbladder cancer cells in vitro with its additional effect in down regulation of multidrug resistance MDR expression [ 8 ].
Experiment included a control group also. Although there was no evidence of direct or prominent anti-tumor effect, the result suggested that Se-CS suppressed oxidative stress. This anti oxidizing activity was supported by the significant findings like decrease in lactate dehydrogenase LDH , increase in glutathione GSH and decrease in lipid peroxidation LPO Restoration of endogenous antioxidants enzymes were also noted in Se-CS treatment group expressing immune stimulus to combat malignancy [ 10 ].
The constituent of ECS comprised of oleic acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, ergosterol and palmitic acid, whereas carbohydrate and protein were main component in HWCS. Effect of M1mAchR by the extract of CS was further confirmed in vivo experimenting on amnesia mice model Memory impairment in the mice was induced by injecting anticholinergic drug scopolamine which is reported to malfunction the mAChR activity.
D-galactose induced aged mice were used along with control group in the series of experiment to demonstrate the effect of Cordyceps Sinensis extract CSE on the aspect of antiaging factors characterized by oxidative stress, sexual dysfunction, memory impairment and age-related enzymes. Mice treated with CSE showed an improved learning and memory in water maze test.
Improved sexual response was exhibited after a CSE in dose dependent manner in castrated and sham castrated rats.
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In the enzymatic test, the effect of CSE was reported to have significant reduction of lipid peroxidation level and monoamine oxidase acting with batten activity of superoxide dismutase, GSH-px and catalase in a dose dependent manner suggesting an affirmative effect on anti-aging enzymes.
Electron microscopy of hippocampus found that neurons and cellular organelles were well conserved with less degeneration in mice treated with CSE compared to control group mice, suggesting the enhancement of brain function by CSE [ 12 , 13 ]. Drastic improvement in fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, polydipsia and related hypoglycemic activity were demonstrated in numbers of research conducted on genetic and streptozotocin induced diabetic animal models after administration of Cordyceps Sinensis extract [ 14 - 16 ].
Moreover, findings suggested that CS reduced the complication related to Diabetes Mellitus like improvement in electrolyte balance and decrease in deposition of collagen fibril in histopathological examination of renal cortical over the control model which is a typical feature of Diabetic nephropathy [ 12 ]. A study was conducted on Diabetic Nephropathy rat models to see the effect of CS with Triptorium wilfordii polyglycosidium and with CS alone focusing on podocytes, set in different grouped mice.
Significant improvement was observed in relation to glomerular disorder, tubulointerstitial damage and glomerular podocyte [ 16 ].
Tubular deformation and glomerular hypertrophy were drastically suppressed. In an experiment conducted by Yuan Peng and his team in Shanghai, China [ 18 ]. They made a finding that ergosterol in cultured mycelium Cordyceps Sinensis CMCS has an antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effect on carbon tetrachloride model of liver fibrosis in mice.
Deposition of collagen were decreased and inflammatory cell infiltration was attenuated with the treatment of CMCS. In in vitro test of cell culture to see the action of ergosterol suggested it's good potential in resisting liver fibrosis by inhibition of hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cell activation in dose dependent manner [ 18 ].
A plant chemical, Isoflavones, belonging to phytoestrogen and also a component of CS was extracted using ethyl acetate and used against ovariectomized rat to see its effect on estrogen deficiency osteoporosis, experiment setup also included sham control group [ 19 ]. All these evidences indicate that the osteoporosis is being prevented with treatment of CSIF by its potential in stimulating formation of bones and down regulation of resorption.
It was long believed by the people that CS has immune stimulation and energy boosting potential.
Beside the use of CS in pharmaceutical purposes, it was also accustomed as a healthy food for centuries in china, Bhutan, Nepal, India etc. Some outstanding performances among the athletes and sports man were reported confessing their credits of performance to the use of CS [ 3 ]. In the experiment, after 12 weeks of treatment with CS, metabolic threshold and ventilatory threshold were observed to be increased by Although the data obtained were limited and it was a small clinical trial in this case, the finding suggested that CS has positive effect on aerobic performance in elderly people further opening a ground for more advanced research on it.
Official supplier of traditional medicines in the kingdom of Bhutan produces a pure herbal supplement called CordyPLUS, which contain six exotic herbs along with CS used for fatigue, weakness, old age, skin, hair radiance, strength and the stimulation of internal organ.
The product is gaining popularity over the years indicating a positive result by the consumers after using it. Cordy active is another product having few additional ingredients formulated for sports man. CS are artificially cultivated and marketed for consumption as a food beside for research and pharmaceutical purpose, especially in China and USA [ 5 ].
Mass artificial production of mycelium is done using culture mediums, two methods of cultivation includes liquid culture fermentation and Solid substrate method.
Millet, rye grain and silk worm based substrates are used as culture media, these differences in substrate used harvested CS of different composition. As the CS in liquid culture is obtained by straining, most of the vital extracellular components are excluded when harvesting. Low level of cordycepin and stunted growth were also observed among CS grown on rice substrate.
To produce the same quality of CS as wild CS has never been possible, because there are many factors influencing the growth of CS. Some researchers also tried hybridization of the CS in respect to the quality and the quantity of bioactive molecules being generated by the mycelia. John C Holliday and team created a hybrid called Cordyceps Sinensis Alohaensis using a snake venom which proved to be a higher potency than other artificially cultivated CS and it was more easily cultivated on solid substrate [ 20 ].